PLANT PROTECTION AGAINST PESTS
Timely protection of plants from pests helps preserve future crops. Sometimes, with the negligent attitude of the owner of the site, naked slugs, cabbage moth, nematode and many other pests breed on it. Consider the options for dealing with them and talk about how to get rid of the nematode, slugs and many other species.
Cabbage moth is a small grayish-brown butterfly, a wingspan of only 14-17 mm. It flies in mid-May, lays small, light green eggs on the underside of the leaf (up to 300 pieces). Hatching light green caterpillars are very mobile, they gnaw through the fabric from the bottom of the sheet, and leave the skin on top in the form of a “parchment window” untouched.
Damage to the inner leaflets and the apical kidney will be more dangerous since the head of cabbage will not form in this case.
Over the summer, cabbage moth in the conditions of our region gives an average of 3-4 generations, and by the end of the growing season, it flies in whole clouds. Pupae overwinter in a cobwebbed cocoon, and sometimes butterflies on post-harvest residues.
On the caterpillars and pupae of the pest, beneficial insects – “riders” can parasitize, thanks to which the number of the pest is significantly reduced in some years.
One of the main measures for pest control is the cleaning and destruction of the post-harvest residues of cabbage and other crops of the same family since cocoons and pest butterflies hibernate on them. So, for example, the autumn digging of the site allows you to patch up the post-harvest residues and remaining plants into the soil, and with them the wintering stage of the moth.
The destruction of spring weeds, on which the first generation most often proceeds, will also be effective.
If there are more than 3-5 caterpillars on one plant and when they occupy 10-30% of the plants, it is necessary to apply to spray, but better with biological preparations: bitoxibacillin (1.5 g per 10 l of water) or lepidote (0.5 g per 10 l water). You can also use infusions of herbs, for example, from a dandelion. To do this, take 500 g of dandelion leaves, which are crushed and crushed, after which 10 l of water is poured. Then add 1 tablespoon of soap to the bucket, so that later the solution sticks better to the surface to be treated. After 3 hours, the infusion is filtered, and the leaves are sprayed at the rate of 1 l / m2, but be sure to try to spray as if from below.
HOW TO GET RID OF THE ONION STEM NEMATODE?
The stem nematode of the onion is a very small (1.5 mm) filiform worm of white color. The pest lives inside the plant, wherewith the help of the oral apparatus in the form of a spear it pierces the walls of plant cells and sucks out the juice from there.
Damaged plants lag behind in growth, bend, seedlings turn yellow, die, and in older plants, the leaves are deformed, the bottom of the bulb is cracked, and its tissues seem to turn out. Damaged bulbs during storage become soft and rot and the seek “dies” together. The same symptoms are observed in garlic.
Onion nematode hibernates in soil, in bulbs, rarely in seeds. In onion waste, on dry scales, it lasts up to two years, and in dried garlic – up to five years.
Once in a humid environment, the nematode larvae, which are in a resting state, again enter a state of active life.
Before you get rid of the stem nematode, you will have to make a lot of effort. So in addition to onions and garlic, it can also damage tomatoes, parsley, radishes, parsnips, and some weeds.
Planting onions and garlic must be carried out on a site where these crops have not been grown for 3-4 years. A place intended for planting onions must be made a month before planting at the rate of 1 cup of lime-fluff or chalk, or dolomite flour per 1 m2. It is necessary to remove snow from these places in winter so that the soil freezes well. Where garlic has already been planted before winter, this should no longer be done.
The onions and garlic that are planted are disinfected by soaking in water with a temperature of + 16–18 ° C for 3 days, and the northeast by immersion in water with a temperature of + 45–46 ° C for 15 minutes. Preplant waste and waste from storage are placed in a pit and sprinkled with bleach or incinerated.
Plants such as calendula, reseda, marigolds, mint, cilantro, chrysanthemum, etc., sown around onion sections with strips of 20 cm wide are somewhat hindering the development of the nematode.
HOW TO GET RID OF NAKED SLUGS?
Naked slugs are invertebrates belonging to the class of mollusks, a subclass of gastropods. They have a fusiform elongated body (70 mm), covered with light-watery mucus. Vegetables, flower and even fruit crops damage these pests. Especially strongly naked slug is harmful in years with damp weather, in lowland, heavily clogged areas or on thickened crops and plantings.
Slugs openly harm mainly at night, and during the day – only in cloudy or rainy weather. For a day, they crawl under lumps of soil, plant debris, under large ground leaves or under planks, etc. When feeding slugs, holes in the stems and holes in the leaves gnaw out, and deep cavities in the tubers and root crops. Damage caused by slugs can be identified by the drying silvery mucus remaining on the surface of the lesions.
How to get rid of slugs on the site? They can be dealt with if weeds are removed and removed from the site in a timely manner, thinning thickened crops and plantings is carried out, they are caught by laying on sections of old boards, wet canvases, and burlap, piles of burdock leaves, where they pick up the day after a “full” night. At noon, they are collected and destroyed, preferably by burning or by sprinkling on them small table salt or lime, but after these 30 minutes, the procedure must be repeated.
For permanent protection against slugs of individual groups of plants or beds with vegetables around them, potassium salt or superphosphate is laid out. To protect areas close to the powdery virgin lands or to the lowlands, where slugs can invade, lime or superphosphate is added in the form of 3 lines (3 cm each) after 15 cm from each other at the boundary of the protected area. Chemical protection against slugs should be used dosed.
After mowing, it is advisable to treat the sod areas located along the fences with a mixture of ash with bleach (30 g of ash and 5 g of lime per 1 m2).
Ground beetles, hedgehogs, frogs effectively fight slugs, so these animals must be preserved and conditions created for their attraction.