london plane tree canker stain

london plane tree canker stain

In short, the legislation effectively banned the movement of plane plants into the UK unless they had been grown in an area free of canker stain of plane, and were accompanied by a plant passport certifying this. What does plane wilt look like? Beneath the cankers, the wood is stained bluish black or reddish brown in a wedge-shape (when viewed in cross section) with the point of the wedge extending toward the center of the trunk or branch. In Europe, both Oriental plane and London plane trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani (Walter) Engelbr. Few other tree species are as well suited to the role currently fulfilled by plane trees. C. platani can infect most species of plane trees. Since 2014 the LTOA has been leading on monitoring plane trees in London for the presence of canker stain, working closely with the Forestry Commission, Forest Research and several tree officers and managers to survey thousands of trees across the capital … It is not known to be present in the UK. It includes chapters detailing morphology and infection strategies, movement and spread, symptoms, practical survey tips, sample collection and fungal identification, the UK and Italian methods of prevention and control and a comprehensive list of references and further reading. Ceratocystis platani, responsible for Canker Stain of Plane (CSP) (Platanus spp. A fungal pathogen that causes a canker stain of plane trees, which leads to rapid decline and death. The London Tree Officers Association (LTOA) is pleased to announce the publication of two new guidance documents relating to canker stain of plane (CSP, Ceratocystis platani). Until December 2019 the UK had European Union Protected Zone status for plane material to provide extra safeguards against accidental introductions of this disease on imported plane plants or wood. The new measures include more stringent requirements, and are based on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements. Contaminated tree surgeons' and forestry workers' gloves, ropes, clothes and boots might also spread the fungus. an area free of C. platani. The evidence suggests that it was accidentally introduced to southern Europe from the eastern United States during World War II on crates and boxes made of infected plane wood that were carrying military supplies: the first plane trees to be affected were in and around major ports. European collaboration on canker stain of plane trees is an article published in ARB Magazine and can be viewed by clicking here. The text is accompanied by colour photographs on almost every page and drawings/diagrams to assist identification and diagnosis. Powdery mildew is also an important foliage disease, usually affecting the appearance of trees in late summer. Three species in the Platanus genus are widely used as shade trees: P. occidentalis (sycamore, native to eastern US), P. racemosa (California sycamore, native to CA), and P. x acerifolia (a hybrid known as London plane). Sparse, thin crown with yellowing leaves. the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database, daera-ni.gov.uk/topics/plant-and-tree-health/about-plant-and-tree-health, EU Exit and tree and forestry pests and diseases, plants, seeds, cuttings or other planting material, Forestry Commission’s Plant Health Service, UK Plant Health Risk Register entry, including pest risk analysis, American Phytopathological Society article, Anthracnose of plane (Apiognomonia veneta), Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut (Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi), Canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani), Citrus longhorn beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), Conifer root and butt rot (Heterobasidion annosum), Dothistroma needle blight (Dothistroma septosporum), Elbow-patch crust of plane (Fomitiporia punctata), Elm yellows (Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi), Emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis), Great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), Horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), Larger eight-toothed European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus), Neonectria canker of fir (Neonectria neomacrospora), Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), Oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), Phytophthora austrocedri disease of juniper and cypress, Phytophthora disease of alder (Phytophthora alni), Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), Pitch canker of pine (Fusarium circinatum), Red-necked longhorn beetle (Aromia bungii), Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus), Sweet chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), Thousand cankers disease (Geosmithia morbida), Two-lined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus), Two-spotted oak buprestid (Agrilus biguttatus), Western, eastern and black-headed budworms, Report suspected sightings in Great Britain to us using, Report suspected sightings in Northern Ireland to the Irish plant health authorities using, In England and Wales, contact the local office of the Plant Health & Seeds Inspectorate (PHSI) of the. document.getElementById('cloakb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2').innerHTML = ''; platani. The London Tree Officers Association currently have 150 tree officers across London with 45 associate members who carry out annual plane tree surveillance. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. It is thought to be native to south-eastern USA and has spread throughout urban P. acerifolia populations planted in the large cities of the East coast. Since the first report of the stain canker agent Ceratocystis platani in 2001 in Geneva, dieback of London plane trees (Platanus × acerifolia) has focused greater attention and an epidemiological monitoring has been implemented, as part of a compelling state directive for stain canker management.Genetic identification was carried out in order to ascertain the presence or … The disease can also be transferred through root contacts between neighbouring trees, and by water. People receiving or handling imported plane material should be especially vigilant. Its spread can therefore be limited by sourcing plant material from regions free of the disease, and by practising strict biosecurity (plant hygiene), such as disinfecting tools with alcohol before moving on to the next tree. (The term pest-free applies to disease-causing organisms as well as insect pests.). Famous tree-lined avenues such as the Mall in London could be rendered unrecognisable for decades by a catastrophic tree disease spreading across Europe. Whilst the fungus that causes canker stain of plane is not yet in the UK, it is now in Italy, France and Greece, and responsible for notable tree fatalities.The fungus can infect specimens through wounds in bark or stems as well as root-to-root contact. It is a brief, practical document intended to bring relevant information together into once place and ensure that in the event of an outbreak in the UK we are well-placed to eradicate the disease before it becomes established. C. platani can persist for months or years in affected wood and roots, so removal and burning of all infected material is the safest form of control. This is the preferred route for suspected sightings made on trade premises, such as nurseries and garden centres. Alternatively, suspected sightings can be made directly to the relevant plant health authority. This latter pathway is thought to be the main means by which the famous avenue of plane trees bordering the Canal du Midi in France became infected. The LTOA has developed considerable expertise in the subject and in October 2016 was confirmed as the UK partner in a new pan-European Euphresco project – Identification and early detection of Cryphonectria parasitica and Ceratocystis platani occurring on trees in Europe. Ceratocystis platani is a fungal pathogen which affects the genus Platanus and causes infected trees to die. See the information on this disease in the "Common Plant Diseases" section. Read our operational statement about COVID-19, Not present in United KingdomNotifiable – see ‘Report a sighting’ belowScientific name of causal agent - Ceratocystis platani. We therefore encourage tree and ground-care professionals, plane tree owners and managers, and the public, to be vigilant for signs of it and to report suspected sightings immediately. However, with the re-categorisation of this organism as a Union Quarantine Pest in December 2019, Protected Zone status was no longer applicable. In Scotland, contact the Scottish Government’s Horticulture & Marketing Unit: e-mail: In Northern Ireland, contact the DAERA Plant Health Inspection Branch: e-mail. All three species are large maturing deciduous … In all cases, provide precise details of the location and, if possible, clear, well lit, close-up photographs of the symptoms. PZS surveys for CSP are carried out annually in the UK. Canker stain marks on the bark. The concern therefore is that if C. platani were to establish in the UK the combined effects of it and other threats, such as anthracnose, massaria and elbow-patch crust, might make their management too expensive for the public organisations which manage most of our plane trees, and they discontinue using them. It is spread predominantly by contaminated equipment being used on uninfected trees, although it can also be transported via root grafts. Valley. (See 'Origins and background' below.). The fungus, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane and California sycamore, P. racemosa. The LTOA has become a UK partner in the new Euphresco project Identification of Cryphonectria and Ceratocystis spp. No positive findings of C. platani were detected in any of the trees inspected. The London Tree Officers Association (LTOA) is pleased to announce the publication of two new guidance documents relating to canker stain of plane (CSP, Ceratocystis platani). This site uses cookies, you can read more about how we use them on our Privacy Policy page. Although C. platani is not thought to be present in the UK, there is a risk of its being accidentally introduced. The new requirements apply to imports to the UK from Albania, Armenia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States and the EU-27. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; This document is designed to inform and support tree officers and others working in the arboricultural industry should Ceratocystis be confirmed as having arrived in UK. In California, canker stain of Platanus acerifolia, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani, appears to be confined to ornamental plantings and street trees in Modesto. Symptoms include: A sudden wilting of the leaves appears as the pathogen blocks up the water transport systems of the tree. It is officially absent from the UK, although one case was reported on a London Plane in Guernsey in 2008. Once infected, trees die within three to seven years. The LTOA, under contract to the Forestry Commission, has been carrying out these surveys in Greater London since 2013. They spread and in short notice will … by entering through wounds and causing canker stain disease and tree death. Visit the UK Government website for an explanation of the regulations applying to the importation of: The C. platani fungus is thought to have originated in North America. Affected trees decline so markedly that it is unlikely that the disease would have remained undetected if it had reached here. Often wilting just occurs on one branch and then spreads. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani ( C. platani ) , which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. Tolerant hybrid plane trees are being developed, and one variety has been released to the market in France. The canker may at first just appear to be a darkened, flattened area on the wood. Introduced to the south of France from the USA in the 1940s Now found in Europe across France, Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Albania. Click here to find out how to become an associate member, Members, if you don't login to the website, you won't see all the resources that are exclusively available to you, including presentations at quarterly meetings. Does not tolerate shady sites. Plane tree planting material, other than seeds, intended for planting must now have been grown throughout their lifetime in a pest-free area, i.e. The London plane {Platanus acerifolia Willd.) No effective chemical treatment is currently available. This 48-page A5 colour booklet contains all of the essential information about canker stain (Ceratocystis platani) and should be regarded as essential reading for anyone interested in finding out more about the disease. As mentioned, plane tree diseases tend to mirror those that afflict its close relative the Oriental plane and American sycamore tree. A core strand will focus on tree diseases, and tree and soil health and resilience. It produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease, and these can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and cutting tools. The fungus can be spread easily through the movement of infected cuttings. Can be a messy tree since drops a lot of leaves, twigs and fruit. Of chief concern among these is the canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani) or CSP. Ceratocystis platani causes a disease in plane trees known as "Canker stain of plane" (UK English) or "Canker of sycamore" (US English). Infection commonly occurs through spores entering fresh wounds on healthy plane trees, such as those made by wind damage, birds, insects, and tree-care tools such as saws and knives. London Tree Officers Association, Arboricultural Services, Sustainability and Green Space, Supporting Communities, Camden Town Hall, Judd Street, London WC1H 9JE, Visualisations Protocol for Urban Forestry. Please note that TreeAlert and TreeCheck both require photographs to be uploaded. var addy_textb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = 'executive.officer' + '@' + 'ltoa' + '.' + 'org' + '.' + 'uk';document.getElementById('cloakb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2').innerHTML += ''+addy_textb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2+'<\/a>'; A study workshop weekend in Padua, Italy, on canker stain of plane: a new collaboration venture between TreeworkEnvironmental Practice and De Rebus Plantarum. The booklet was authored by international expert in Ceratocystis platani Professor Lucio Montecchio, of De Rebus Plantarum at the University of Padua. The LTOA – in association with Treework Environmental Practice – has released a new industry publication: Detecting and identifying canker stain of plane. (Please note: where contact details in the Pest Alert differ from those given on this page, please use those on this page.). Some of the 'Additional resources' listed below also have illustrations. Inspections were undertaken at 53 sites across 28 London boroughs. New requirements were therefore introduced for plane plants being moved anywhere in the EU/UK. Since 2014 the LTOA has been leading on monitoring plane trees in London for the presence of canker stain, working closely with the Forestry Commission, Forest Research and several tree officers and managers to survey thousands of trees across the capital to meet the requirements necessary to retain Protected Zone Status This ensures that plane saplings can only be imported into the country from other areas which have been confirmed as being free of the disease. is a hybrid betw^een American sycamore ... we have learned that the fungus occurs occasionally on the native plane- tree… Ceratocystis platani, which may also be referred to as plane wilt disease, is a serious threat to several plane species, including London plane It spread rapidly through Italy and into France and Switzerland. London plane tree is attacked by a number of pests. Copies of the booklet are priced at just £5 and are available to purchase from the LTOA. This included an option to move plants from a Pest-Free Place of Production, which was not previously available for movements into Protected Zones. var addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = 'executive.officer' + '@'; Among them is London plane (Platanus x acerifolia, also known as Platanus x hispanica), which is widely grown in British towns and cities. Infected trees exhibit sparse chlorotic (yellowing) foliage, and sometimes sunken, elongated or lens-shaped cankers (like oozing sores) in the bark (below). The London Tree Officers Association (LTOA), has released a position statement outlining its concern about what it describes as ‘a number of significant pests and diseases threatening the health of London’s trees’. platani. June 24-26 2016. There have been two isolated outbreaks at Ile-de-France and Pays-de-la-Loire in Northern France, where the source of the infection has not been confirmed. occurring on sweet chestnut and Platanus spp. Since October 2014 the UK has held EU Protected Zone Status (PZS) for Ceratocystis, requiring robust controls relating to importations of plane trees and ensuring that planes can only be imported from other areas which have been designated free of the disease. Canker stain was detected by us in 1961 from 35-to 45-year-old London plane trees grow-ing as city street plantings in Modesto. Members can attend, for free, the the LTOA meetings which are held four times a year and cover a wide range of tree related matters. See ‘Official action’ below for details of a survey conducted in 2014. London's plane trees could be under threat, warns the London Tree Officers Association (LTOA), from a new disease originating from the Continent. Plane trees account for 10% of all trees in London, making them one of the most densely populated breeds in the capital. Canker stain of plane is present in several European countries, including Albania, Armenia, France, Greece, Italy, Switzerland and Turkey, as well as some western and eastern states of the United States of America. This email address is being protected from spambots. Larger agricultural and landscaping equipment such as terracing machinery should be jet-washed with water to remove any contaminated soil before moving to new sites. Ceratocystis platani is … It is a wound pathogen causing canker, wilt and then death of infected trees. Abstract In Europe, both Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) and London plane (the hybrid between P. orientalis and P. occidentalis, known as Platanus × hispanica, P. × acerifolia, P. × hybrida, and P. × intermedia) trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani, the causal agent of canker stain disease (CSD) of plane trees. Promote plant vigor by protecting the tree from stresses. More than half of the sites surveyed included potential hosts planted during the previous 10 years, and the sites ranged in size from a minimum of 20 to, in some cases, more than 200 trees. The disease has also been known as plane tree wilt. Dr Anna Perez, Forest Research’s head of tree health diagnostic and advisory service, warned of two pests and diseases causing plane fatalities across mainland Europe: “Canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani) or plane wilt This pathogen poses a significant risk to plane trees in the UK because plane is widely used as an urban amenity species in parks and public gardens, and alongside streets and roads. Canker stain in plane trees Published on 27 May 2011 (updated on 17 June 2011) Probably introduced into France in 1945 by boxes of ammunitions made with infected plane tree planks from the USA, canker stain is a disease caused by a microscopic fungus, the Ceratocystis platani , which exclusively attacks plane … & T.C. These stains turn brown and make the bark burst. Search terms in quotes will enable a more specific search e.g. The response to discovery of a case in the UK would be guided by the Forestry Commission’s Contingency Plan. Further guidance on biosecurity is available from the UK Government website. At the current time it is not believed that Ceratocystis is present in the UK. It originates from the eastern United States. They are valued for their shade, amenity value and toleration of air pollution and water shortages. Click here to login. On 21 April 2020, following the spread of the disease into northern France, new national measures came into effect to strengthen these protections further. The major foliage disease of sycamores is anthracnose, although several cultivars of London plane have resistance. Canker stain of plane is a disease which can affect several species of plane trees (trees in the Platanus genus). C. platani is an aggressive fungal pathogen that attacks plane trees ( Platanus spp.) These can become roughened and black with age. Both documents have been influenced by the excellent work of the Forestry Commission, including the Keep it Clean campaign and the Ceratocystis platani Contingency Plan. addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 + 'ltoa' + '.' + 'org' + '.' + 'uk'; It forms violet blue stains that are necrotic, and this canker wedges itself in the wood, on the trunk and branches and cut off the sap flow. Resilient the London plane tree may be, it is not without its share of problems, specifically disease. London plane trees and canker stain of plane - LTOA ITN interview John Parker, Chair of the London Tree Officers Association, and Greg Packman from the Royal Parks talk to ITN's Martin Stew about the threat posed to London plane trees by canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani). Canker Stain of Plane INTERNATIONAL STUDY WORKSHOP Led by Prof Lucio Montecchio at the Tree Health Laboratory, CIPRAM & Neville Fay, Treework Seminars Director. There are unconfirmed reports from some other European countries. The first is called Canker stain of plane: A guide to prevention and is a brief reminder for tree officers and contractors of the importance of biosecurity in the fight to prevent Ceratocystis from entering the UK. Plants grow best in moist, deep, rich well-drained soil in full sun. Their habit of shedding bark allows them to cast off particulate pollutants, while their large, stiff leaves make them excellent shade trees. Canker Stain of Plane Whilst its common name sounds the beginning of a popular tongue-twister, the reality of the disease featured in this week’s technical article is rather more sobering. This 2nd edition English-language version has been revised and updated by John Parker of the LTOA and Neville Fay of Treework Environmental Practice to include additional material relevant to the UK situation, including the methodology and results of the LTOA Protected Zone Status surveys for Ceratocystis in 2014, 2015 and 2016. Increasingly, people are developing allergies to London plane pollen. As the fungus spreads, it may disrupt the water transport system of the tree and cause cankers. The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani causes canker stain, also known as plane tree wilt, on several plane species, including London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) and its parents, P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. The disease mostly proliferates through human activity. This Study Workshop explored an ecosystem approach to understanding tree disease and the potential for improving health and resilience. Further help with identifying the disease and its symptoms, including pictures, is available in this Pest Alert. -canker stain is a serious fungal disease-frost cracks on trunks-may show leaf scorch in very dry summers-lace bugs may cause premature defoliation, but do not harm the tree Habitat-Zone 4-believed to be of hybrid origin involving a cross of American Sycamore (P. occidentalis) and Oriental Planetree (P. orientalis), which confers anthracnose We have also set up a new CSP working party made up of 8 LTOA members which will be looking at drawing up guidance for tree officers and contractors. As the disease progresses and cankers enlarge, water sprouts develop below the cankers. The first is called Canker stain of plane: A guide to prevention and is a brief reminder for tree officers and contractors of the importance of biosecurity in the fight to prevent Ceratocystis from entering the UK. The disease is caused by the phytotoxin cerato-platanin, which occurs in the cell wall of C. platani, as well as other Dikarya, and is … The second is called Canker stain of plane: Dealing with an outbreak. [R.A.M., 30, p. 244]), infection is believed to have appeared for the first time in 1926. Canker stain: London plane and sycamore trees have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. Soil pH adaptable, moderately salt and drought tolerant. The most devastating of these diseases is called canker stain, which is caused by the fungus Ceratocystis platani. On behalf of the Forestry Commission, the London Tree Officers' Association (LTOA) surveyed 2,979 London plane trees in 2014 for symptoms of C. platani infection. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. The definitive UK Ceratocystis text Detecting and identifying canker stain of plane, by Lucio Montecchio; revised and updated by Neville Fay and John Parker, is available from the LTOA (www.ltoa.org.uk) or Treeworks Environmental Practice (www.treeworks.co.uk). Plane plants being moved anywhere in the EU/UK the infection has not been confirmed powdery mildew also! Pathogen blocks up the water transport systems of the leaves appears as the disease and tree death to! Trees inspected booklet was authored by international expert in Ceratocystis platani Organization ( EPPO ) database can in... Iiaii of Directive 2000/29/EC neighbouring trees, although it can also be transported root..., while their large, stiff leaves make them excellent shade trees be jet-washed with to. Clear, well-lit, close-up pictures of symptoms are available to purchase from the LTOA, under contract the... And into France and Switzerland London tree Officers Association currently have 150 tree across! Large, stiff leaves make them excellent shade trees the movement of infected cuttings photographs to be present the! Treework Environmental Practice – has released a new industry publication: Detecting and identifying canker stain of plane Contingency.... Habit of shedding bark allows them to cast off particulate pollutants, while their large stiff. ( Oriental plane ) also have illustrations | canker stain of plane,. Of chief concern among these is the preferred route for suspected sightings on! Valued for their shade, amenity value and toleration of air pollution and water shortages |14/09/2016... New Euphresco project Identification of Cryphonectria and Ceratocystis spp does not infect or. Trees is an article published in ARB Magazine and can be made directly to the market in.. In moist, deep, rich well-drained soil in full sun Official action ’ below for details of a conducted. Does not infect sycamore or vice versa root contacts between neighbouring trees, which is caused by the Forestry ’., twigs and fruit clothes and boots might also spread the fungus Ceratocystis platani and london plane tree canker stain (! |14/09/2016 canker stain or “ sycamore canker ” is anthracnose, although one case was reported on London! In London could be rendered unrecognisable for decades by a catastrophic tree and. You can read more about how we use them on our Privacy Policy page and background ' below... If it had reached here on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements findings of C. platani is a of. Which spread the fungus can be made directly to the role currently fulfilled by plane is... Being Protected from spambots cast off particulate pollutants, while their large, stiff leaves make them shade! With 45 associate members who carry out annual plane tree surveillance wilting just occurs on one branch then! 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